Spirit Duplicator ... is essentially a hectograph which uses spirits, or alcohol to make its duplications.
In order to duplicate documents, it was necessary to first copy them onto the appropriate spirit master.
"This machine printed from a "master" created in the same manner in which hectographic master sheets for spirit duplicators were made, but considerably before their introduction" (Rhodes and Streeter 109).
Relation to Other Copying Processes
Notion of Spirit
- Curwen, Harold. Processes of Graphic Reproduction in Printing. London: Faber and Faber, 1963.
- Doss, Milburn P. (Ed). Information Processing Equipment. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1955.
- Fisher, Harrison M. Today's Business Machines. Chicago: American Technical Society, 1959
- Gardiner, A. W. Typewriting and Office Duplicating Processes. New York: Focal Press, 1968.
- hectograph. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 30, 2007 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9039781
- Owen, David. Copies in seconds : how a lone inventor and an unknown company created the biggest communication breakthrough since Gutenberg : Chester Carlson and the birth of the Xerox machine. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.
- Rhodes, Barbara J. and Streeter, William W. Before Photocopying: The Art and History of Mechanical Copying, 1780-1938: A book in two parts. New Castle and Northampton: Oak Knoll Press and Heraldry Bindery, 1999.
- Schwartz, Hillel. The Culture of the Copy: Striking Likenesses, Unreasonable Facsimiles. New York: Zone Books, 1996.